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1950-1999 Nobel Ödulleri Listesi

TUBITAK-GMBAE 1950-1999 Nobel ödülleri Listesi

 

1950-1999 Yılları arasında fizik, kimya, ekonomi, fizyoloji ve tıp alanlarında Nobel ödülü alan bilimadamları ve çalışmaları1
Yıl Çalışma Ödül Sahibi
Physics
1950 The development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and the discoveries regarding mesons made with this method. Cecil Frank Powell
1951 The pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles. "Sir John Douglas Cockcroft; Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton"
1952 The development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith. "Felix Bloch; Edward Mills Purcell"
1953 Demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contract microscope. Frits (Frederik) Zernike
1954 "Fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for the statistical interpretation of the wavefunction; and for the coincidence method and the discoveries made therewith." "Max Born; Walther Bothe"
1955 "Discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum; and precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron." "Willis Eugene Lamb; Polykarp Kusch"
1956 Researches on semiconductors and the discovery of the transistor effect. "William Shockley; John Bardeen; Walter Houser Brattain"
1957 Penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles. "Chen Ning Yang; Tsung-Dao Lee"
1958 The discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect. "Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov; Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm""Il’ja Mikhailovich Frank;"
1959 The discovery of the antiproton. "Emilio Gino Segre; Owen Chamberlain"
1960 The invention of the bubble chamber. Donald A. Glaser
1961 "Pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for the thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons; and research concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and the discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name." "Robert Hofstadter; Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer"
1962 Pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium. Lev Davidovich Landau
1963 "Contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles; and discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure." "Eugene P. Wigner; Maria Goeppert-Mayer; J. Hans D. Jensen"
1964 Fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle. "Charles H. Townes; Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov; Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov"
1965 Fundaments work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles. "Sin-Itiro Tomonaga; Julian Schwinger; Richard P. Feynman"
1966 The discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms. Alfred Kastler
1967 Contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially the discoveries concerning the energy production in stars. Hans Albrecht Bethe
1968 Decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through the development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis. Luis W. Alvarez
1969 Contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Murray Gell-Mann
1970 "Fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics; and fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics." "Hannes Alfvén; Louis Néel"
1971 Invention and development of the holographic method. Dennis Gabor
1972 Theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory. "John Bardeen; Leon N. Cooper; J. Robert Schrieffer"
1973 "Experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively; and theoretical predictions of the properties of a super current through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects." "Leo Esaki; Ivar Giaever; Brian D. Josephson"
1974 Pioneering research in radio astrophysics: observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and decisive role in the discovery of pulsars. "Sir Martin Ryle; Antony Hewish"
1975 Discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection. "Aage Bohr; Ben Mottelson; James Rainwater"
1976 Pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind. "Burton Richter; Samuel C.C. Ting"
1977 Fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems. "Philip W. Anderson; Sir Nevill F. Mott; John H. VanVleck"
1978 "Basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics; and the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation." "Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa; Arno A. Penzias; Robert W. Wilson"
1979 Contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current. "Sheldon L. Glashow; Abdus Salam; Steven Weinberg"
1980 Discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons. "James W. Cronin; Val L. Fitch"
1981 "Contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy; and contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy." "Nicolaas Bloembergen; Arthur L. Schawlow; Kai M. Siegbahn"
1982 Theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions. Kenneth G. Wilson
1983 "Theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars; and theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe." "Subramanyan Chandrasekhar; William A. Fowler "
1984 Decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction. "Carlo Rubbia; Simon Van Der Meer "
1985 Discovery of the quantized Hall effect. Klaus Von Klitzing
1986 "Fundamental work in electron optics, and the design of the first electron microscope; and the design of the canning tunneling microscope." "Ernst Ruska; Gerd Binnig; Heinrich Rohrer"
1987 Important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials. "J. Georg Bednorz; K. Alexander Müller"
1988 The neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino. "Leon M. Lederman; Melvin Schwartz; Jack Steinberger"
1989 "Invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks; and the development of the ion trap technique." "Norman F. Ramsey; Hans G. Dehmelt; "
1990 Pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound particle physics. "Jerome I. Friedman; Henry W. Kendall; Wolfgang Paul"neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in Richard E. Taylor
1991 Discovery that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
1992 Invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber. Georges Charpak
1993 Discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation. "Russell A. Hulse; Joseph H. Taylor, Jr."gravitation.
1994 Pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter: the development of neutron spectroscopy, and for the development of the neutron diffraction technique. "Bertram N. Brockhouse; Clifford G. Shull"
1995 Pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics: for the discovery of the tau lepton, and the detection of the neutrino. "Martin L. Perl; Frederick Reines"
1996 Discovery of superfluidity in helium-3. "David M. Lee; Douglas D. Osheroff; Robert C. Richardson"
1997 Development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. "Steven Chu; Claude Cohen-Tannoudji; William D. Phillips"
1998 Discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations. "Robert B. Laughlin; Horst L. Störmer; Daniel C. Tsui"Daniel C. Tsui
1999 Elucidation of the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics. "Gerardus ‘t Hooft; Martinus J.G. Veltman"
Chemistry
1950 Discovery and development of the diene synthesis. "Otto Paul Hermann Diels; Kurt Alder"
1951 Discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements. "Edwin Mattison McMillan; Glenn Theodore Seaborg"
1952 Invention of partition chromatography. "Archer John Porter Martin; Richard Laurence Millington Synge "Richard Laurence Millington Synge
1953 Discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry. Hermann Staudinger
1954 Research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances. Linus Carl Pauling
1955 Work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone. Vincent du Vigneaud
1956 Researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions. "Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood; Lord Alexander R. Todd"
1957 Work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes. Lord Alexander R. Todd
1958 Work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin. Frederick Sanger
1959 Discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis. Jaroslav Heyrovsky
1960 Method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science. Willard Frank Libby
1961 Research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants. Melvin Calvin
1962 Studies of the structures of globular proteins. "Max Ferdinand Perutz; Sir John Cowdery Kendrew"
1963 Discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers. "Karl Zeigler; Giulio Natta"
1964 Determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
1965 Outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis. Robert Burns Woodward
1966 Fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method. Robert S. Mulliken
1967 Studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy. "Manfred Eigen; Ronald George; Wreyford Norrish; Lord George Porter"
1968 Discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Lars Onsager
1969 Contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its applications in chemistry. "Sir Derek H.R. Barton; Odd Hassel"
1970 Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. Luis F. Leloir
1971 Contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals. Gerhard Herzberg
1972 "Work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation; and the contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule." "Christian B. Anfinsen; Stanford Moore; William H. Stein"
1973 Pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so-called sandwich compounds. "Ernst Otto Fischer; Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson"
1974 Fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules. Paul J. Flory
1975 "Work on the sterochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; and research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions." "Sir John Warcup Cornforth; Vladimir Prelog"
1976 Studies on the struction of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding. William N. Lipscomb
1977 Contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures. Ilya Prigogine
1978 Contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory. Peter D. Mitchell
1979 Development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis. "Herbert C. Brown; Georg Wittig"
1980 "Fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA; and contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids." "Paul Berg; Walter Gilbert; Frederick Sanger"
1981 Theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions. "Kenichi Fukui; Roald Hoffmann"
1982 Development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes. Sir Aaron Klug
1983 Work on the mechanism of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. Henry Taube
1984 Development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix. Robert Bruce Merrifield
1985 Outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures. "Herbert A. Hauptman; Jerome Karle"
1986 Contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes. "Dudley R. Herschbach; Yuan T. Lee; "John C. Polanyi
1987 Development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity. "Donald J. Cram; Jean-Marie Lehn; "Charles J. Pedersen
1988 The determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center. "Johann Deisenhofer; Robert Huber; "Hartmut Michel
1989 Discovery of catalytic properties of RNA. "Sidney Altman; Thomas R. Cech"
1990 Development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis. Elias James Corey
1991 Contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Richard R. Ernst
1992 Contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems. Rudolph A. Marcus
1993 "Contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry: invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method; and fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for the protein studies. " "Kary B. Mullis; Michael Smith"
1994 Contribution to carbocation chemistry. George A. Olah
1995 Work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. "Paul J. Crutzen; Mario J. Molina; F. Sherwood Rowland"F. Sherwood Rowland
1996 Discovery of fullerenes. "Robert F. Curl, Jr.; Sir Harold W. Kroto; Richard E. Smalley"
1997 "Elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); and for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+,K+-ATPase." "Paul D. Boyer; John E. Walker; Jens C. Skou"
1998 "Development of the density-functional theory; and development of computational methods in quantum chemistry." "Walter Kohn; John A. Pople"
1999 Studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy. Ahmed H. Zewail
Physiology or medicine
1950 Discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects. "Edward Calvin Kendall; Tadeus Reichstein; Philip Showalter Hench"
1951 Discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it. Max Theiler
1952 Discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis. Selman Abraham Waksman
1953 "Discovery of the citric acid cycle; and discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism." "Sir Hans Adolf Krebs; Fritz Albert Lipmann"
1954 Discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various type of tissue. "John Franklin Enders; Thomas Huckle Weller; Frederick Chapman Robbins"
1955 Discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes. Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
1956 Discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system. "André Frédéric Cournand; Werner Forssmann; Dickinson W. Richards"
1957 Discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles. Daniel Bovet
1958 "Discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events; and discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria." "George Wells Beadle; Edward Lawrie Tatum; Joshua Lederberg"
1959 Discovery of the mechanism in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid. "Severo Ochoa; Arthur Kornberg"
1960 Discovery of acquired immunological tolerance. "Sir Frank MacFarlane Burnet; Sir Peter Brian Medawar"
1961 Discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea. Georg Von Békésy
1962 Discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material. "Francis Harry Compton Crick; James Dewey Watson; Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins"
1963 Discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane. "Sir John Carew Eccles; Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley"
1964 Discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. "Konrad Bloch; Feodor Lynen"
1965 Discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis. "François Jacob; André Lwoff; Jacques Monod"Jacques Monod
1966 "Discovery of tumor-inducing viruses; and discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer." "Peyton Rous; Charles Brenton Huggins"
1967 Discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye. "Ragnar Granit; Haldan Keffer Hartline; George Wald "George Wald
1968 Interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. "Robert W. Holley; Har Gobind Khorana; Marshall W. Nirenberg"
1969 Discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses. "Max Delbrück; Alfred D. Hershey; Salvador E. Luria"Salvador E. Luria
1970 Discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release, and inactivation. "Sir Bernard Katz; Ulf VonEuler; Julius Axelrod "
1971 Discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones. Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
1972 Discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. "Gerald M. Edelman; Rodney R. Porter"
1973 Discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns. "Karl Von Frisch; Konrad Lorenz; Nikolaas Tinbergen"Nikolaas Tinbergen
1974 Discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell. "Albert Claude; Christian deDuve; George E. Palade"George E. Palade
1975 Discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell. "David Baltimore; Renato Dulbecco; Howard Martin Temin"Howard Martin Temin
1976 Discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. "Baruch S. Blumberg; D. Carleton Gajdusek"
1977 "Discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain; and the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones." "Roger Guillemin; Andrew V. Schally; Rosalyn Yalow"
1978 Discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics. "Werner Arber; Daniel Nathans; Hamilton O. Smith"Hamilton O. Smith
1979 Development of computer-assisted tomography. "Allan M. Cormack; Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield"
1980 Discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions. "Baruj Benacerraf; Jean Dausset; George D. Snell"immunological reactions.George D. Snell
1981 "Discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres; and discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system." "Roger W. Sperry; David H. Hubel; Torsten N. Wiesel"
1982 Discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances. "Sune K. Bergström; Bengt I. Samuelsson; Sir John R. Vane"
1983 Discovery of mobile genetic elements. Barbara McClintock
1984 Theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies. "Niels K. Jerne; Georges J.F. Köhler; César Milstein "discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.César Milstein
1985 Discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. "Michael S. Brown; Joseph L. Goldstein"
1986 Discoveries of growth factors. "Stanley Cohen; Rita Levi-Montalcini"
1987 Discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity. Susumu Tonegawa
1988 Discoveries of important principles for drug treatment. "Sir James W. Black; Gertrude B. Elion; George H. Hitchings"George H. Hitchings
1989 Discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. "J. Michael Bishop; Harold E. Varmus"
1990 Discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease. "Joseph E. Murray; E. Donnall Thomas"
1991 Discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells. "Erwin Neher; Bert Sakmann"
1992 Discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism. "Edmond H. Fischer; Edwin G. Krebs"
1993 Discoveries of split genes. "Richard J. Roberts; Phillip A. Sharp"
1994 Discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells. "Alfred G. Gilman; Martin Rodbell"
1995 Discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. "Edward B. Lewis; Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard; Eric F. Wieschaus"
1996 Discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell-mediated immune defense. "Peter C. Doherty; Rolf M. Zinkernagel"
1997 Discovery of prions – a new biological principle of infection. Stanley B. Prusiner
1998 Discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. "Robert F. Furchgott; Louis J. Ignarro; Ferid Murad "Ferid Murad
1999 Discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell. Günter Blobel
Economics
1969 Development and application of dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. "Ragnar Frisch; Jan Tinbergen"
1970 Scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science. Paul A. Samuelson
1971 Empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development. Simon Kuznets
1972 Pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory. "Sir John R. Hicks; Kenneth J. Arrow"
1973 Development of the input–output method and for its application to important economic problems. Wassily Leontief
1974 Pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena. "Gunnar Myrdal; Friedrich August VonHayek"
1975 Contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources. "Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich; Tjalling C. Koopmans"Tjalling C. Koopmans
1976 Achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for the demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy. Milton Friedman
1977 Pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements. "Bertil Ohlin; James E. Meade"
1978 Pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations. Herbert A. Simon
1979 Pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries. "Theodore W. Schultz; Sir Arthur Lewis "
1980 Creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies. Lawrence R. Klein
1981 Analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production, and prices. James Tobin
1982 Seminal studies of industrial structures, function of markets, and causes and effects of public regulation. George J. Stigler
1983 Incorporating new analytical methods into economic theory and rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium. Gerard Debreu
1984 Fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence great improvment in the basis for empirical economic analysis. Sir Richard Stone
1985 Pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets. Franco Modigliani
1986 Development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making. James M. Buchanan, Jr.
1987 Contributions to the theory of economic growth. Robert M. Solow
1988 Pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources. Maurice Allais
1989 Clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and analyses of simultaneous economic structures. Trygve Haavelmo
1990 Pioneering work in the theory of financial economics. "Harry M. Markowitz; Merton H. Miller; William F. Sharpe"William F. Sharpe
1991 Discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy. Ronald H. Coase
1992 Extension of the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behavior and interaction, including nonmarket behavior. Gary S. Becker
1993 Renewal of research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change. "Robert W. Fogel; Douglass C. North"
1994 Pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of noncooperative games. "John C. Harsanyi; John F. Nash; "Reinhard Selten
1995 Development and application of the hypothesis of rational expectations, which have transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened understanding of economic policy. Robert E. Lucas, Jr.
1996 Fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information. "James A. Mirrlees; William Vickrey"
1997 New method to determine the value of derivatives. "Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes"
1998 Contributions to welfare economics. Amartya Sen
1999 Analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and analysis of optimum currency areas. Robert A. Mundell
1 Kaynak: National Science Foundation, http://www.nsf.gov/, 2000
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Etiketler : nobel, ödül, tubitak, ödül, 1950-1999
Yazan : mania  |
27 May 2005 Cum   
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